Archive

Posts Tagged ‘potd’

POTD: Application configuration via Guice binding + Groovy

March 1st, 2014

Often I write my applications with Guice. I also often want to make those applications configurable externally. For example I might inject username and password for that app to talk to another app, I might configure some timeout value, and so on. I make these configuration values available in Guice, so that I can access them wherever I need them. All of this is pretty common in many other places, I’d imagine.

Given that all I’m doing here is to pass configuration values from left to right, I thought it’d be nice if I can write configuration directly as a Guice module by using Guice binder EDSL. Then I won’t have to parse and translate these configuration any more.

And that became my project of the day.

This little library allows you to write Guice binding definitions in a text file:

timeout = 3
bind Payment named "customer" to VisaPayment

From your program, you use GroovyWiringModule to load this configuration file:

Module config = new GroovyWiringModule(new File("/etc/myapp.conf"));
Injector i = Guice.createInjector(
  Modules.override( ... my application's modules ...)
    .with(config))

The end result is that the above script gets translated into the following binding:

bind(int.class).annotatedWith(Names.named("timeout")).toInstance(3)
bind(Payment.class).annotatedWith(Names.named("customer")).to(VisaPayment.class)

Using Groovy as the host language for DSL has other benefits. If you are using system properties or environment variables to configure something, you are basically stuck with strings as the only representation of the configuration. With Groovy, I can create a relatively complex object and bind them, or even put some logic to further obtain values from elsewhere:

bind Payment toInstance new VisaPayment(
  cardNumber: "1234-5678-9012-3456",
  expiration: new Date(System.currentTimeInMillis()+TimeUnit.DAYS.toMillis(30),
  cvv: new URL("http://secret.server/cvv").text) 

With the functionality in Guice to override definitions in one module by another, I can also even override bindings defined in programs, for example to get more logging, add a filter, etc.

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POTD: cucumber annotation indexer

February 27th, 2014

Cucumber for Java requires that you specify the packages in which your step definitions exist. At runtime, cucumber uses some hack to try to list all the classes in this package (it’s a hack because class loaders never really support the listing operation), loads them one by one, and finds those that have step definition annotations like @When and @Then. This is both poor user experience (can’t you just find my step definitions!?) and poor performance (loading all the classes under a package is expensive.)

So I wrote a library that offers a much better alternative. It uses annotation indexer to create an index of step definitions and hooks at compile time. Thanks to JSR-269, this happens automatically on Java 6 and later. With the index in /META-INF/annotations, runtime can load all the step definitions quite efficiently.

The library contains a Backend implementation, so you should be able to just add it to your project dependency, and cucumber should automatically find this (and thus all your step definitions and hooks.)

By the way, this horrible technique of scanning jar files, listing class files, and finding annotations from there is unfortunately commonly seen in many other libraries. This was a necessary evil in the days of Java 5, but it should really die in this day and age. If you realy on the classpath scanning, please switch to annotation indexer, which provides the backbone functionality of this POTD.

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POTD: Custom Access Modifier

April 12th, 2010

My project of the day (or "POTD") is Custom Access Modifier — an annotation and an enforcer that lets you define application-defined custom access modifiers,

So let me explain this a bit more. Say you have a library that people use, and say you are thinking about deprecating one of the methods. Yes, you can just put @Deprecated, but that doesn’t actually prevent people from continuing to use them. This is where you can put the custom access modifier, like this:

 
public class Library {
    @Deprecated @Restricted(DoNotUse.class)
    public void foo() {
        ...
    }
}

This causes compilation to fail for new source files that try to call the foo method. But at the resulting class file still contains the method, so existing applications continue to work. As per the JVM spec, this contraint enforcement is strictly in the user land and thus voluntary, and at the runtime there’s no check nor overhead.

Or say you have a "public" class that’s never intended to be used outside your library? Not a problem.

 
@Restricted(NoExternalUse.class)
public class FooBarImpl {
    ...
}

In the first version, I packaged the enforcer as a Maven mojo, but it should be trivial to write an Ant task or CLI. A real usability improvement is if this can be done as JSR-269 compatible annotation processor, but unfortunately the enforcer needs bytecode level access to the source files being compiled, and I don’t think JSR-269 gives me that, which is a pity.

The real flexibility here is that you can define your own access restrictions, not just using those that I provided out of the box.

The reason I came up with this is to better assist the feature deprecation in Hudson. With 6+ years of the code history, there are a fair amount of deprecated code in the foundation. We’d eventually like to remove them, but we can’t just delete them all the sudden — there might be plugins using them out there. But with this plugin, I can actually make sure that plugins are not using those deprecated features that are candidates for removal.

I hope you’ll find this tool useful. The source is on GitHub.

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